Mr. Isaac's Social Studies Site

Research Links





Historical Background

 Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán -

 Guatemalan Intervention -

 United Fruit Company –

 Guatemalan Struggle -

 CIA -

Historians’ Opinions - TO VIEW FROM HOME -->

 U.S. Foreign Policy toward Radical Change: Covert Operations in Guatemala, 1950-1954, Gordon L. Bowen, Latin American Perspectives Vol. 10, No. 1, Central America: The Process of Revolution (Winter, 1983), pp. 88-102.

Interpreting the 1954 U.S. Intervention in Guatemala: Realist, Revisionist, and Postrevisionist Perspectives, Stephen M. Streeter, The History Teacher Vol. 34, No. 1 (Nov., 2000), pp. 61-74.

Guatemala as Cold War History, Richard H. Immerman, Political Science Quarterly Vol. 95, No. 4 (Winter, 1980-1981), pp. 629-653.

A Case History of U. S. Subversion: Guatemala, 1954, Max Gordon, Science & Society Vol. 35, No. 2 (Summer, 1971), pp. 129-155.

An Illusion of Omnipotence: U.S. Policy toward Guatemala, 1954-1960, Charles D. Brockett, Latin American Politics and Society, Vol. 44, No. 1 (Spring, 2002), pp. 91-126.

The Guatemalan Affair: A Critique of United States Foreign Policy, Philip B. Taylor, Jr., The American Political Science Review Vol. 50, No. 3 (Sep., 1956), pp. 787-806.



Historical Background


 Salvador Allende -

 Chilean Coup -

 Raúl Silva Henríquez –

 Augusto Pinochet -

Historians’ Opinions - TO VIEW FROM HOME -->

"The Responsibility to Tell You": An Interview with Isabel Allende, John Rodden and Isabel Allende, The Kenyon Review New Series, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Winter, 1991), pp. 113-123.

The "Invisible Blockade" and the Overthrow of Allende, Paul E. Sigmund, Foreign Affairs Vol. 52, No. 2 (Jan., 1974), pp. 322-340.

 The Politics of the Allende Overthrow in Chile, Peter A. Goldberg, Political Science Quarterly Vol. 90, No. 1 (Spring, 1975), pp. 93-116. 

Democracy, Dependency, and Destabilization: The Shaking of Allende's Regime, Gil Merom, Political Science Quarterly Vol. 105, No. 1 (Spring, 1990), pp. 75-95.

 On the U.S. and the Overthrow of Allende: A Reply to Professor Sigmund's Criticism, James Petras and Morris Morley, Latin American Research Review Vol. 13, No. 1 (1978), pp. 205-221.

President Gerald Ford, CIA Covert Operations, and the Status of International Law, Richard A. Falk, The American Journal of International Law Vol. 69, No. 2 (Apr., 1975), pp. 354-358.



Historical Background

            Mohammad Mosaddeq -

            Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi -

            Anglo-Iranian oil crisis -

            Anglo-Iranian Oil Company -

            CIA -

Historians’ Opinions - TO VIEW FROM HOME -->

Operation 'Ajax' Revisited: Iran, 1953, Moyara de Moraes Ruehsen, Middle Eastern Studies Vol. 29, No. 3 (Jul., 1993), pp. 467-486.

The 1953 Coup D'etat in Iran, Mark J. Gasiorowski, International Journal of Middle East Studies Vol. 19, No. 3 (Aug., 1987), pp. 261-286.

American Policy and the Iranian Crisis, Richard W. Cottam, Iranian Studies Vol. 13, No. 1/4, Iranian Revolution in Perspective (1980), pp. 279-305.

The Coup That Changed the Middle East: Mossadeq v. The CIA in Retrospect, Mostafa T. Zahrani, World Policy Journal, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Summer, 2002), pp. 93-99.

Iran's 1953 Coup Revisited: Internal Dynamics versus External Intrigue, Fariborz Mokhtari, Middle East Journal, Vol. 62, No. 3 (Summer, 2008), pp. 457-488.

The United States, Iran and Operation 'Ajax': Inverting Interpretative Orthodoxy, Steve Marsh, Middle Eastern Studies, V. 39, #3 (Jul., 2003), pp. 1-38.



Historical Background

 Iran- Contra Scandal -

 CIA -

 Sandinista National Liberation Front -

 Contras -

 Contra War -

Historians’ Opinions - TO VIEW FROM HOME --

Soviet-Nicaraguan Relations and the Contra War, Marc Edelman, International Journal on World Peace Vol. 5, No. 3 (JUL-SEP 1988), pp. 45-67.

Iran-Contra's Untold Story, Robert Parry and Peter Kornbluh, Foreign Policy No. 72 (Autumn, 1988), pp. 3-30.

Test Case for the Reagan Doctrine: The Covert Contra War, Peter Kornbluh, Third World Quarterly Vol. 9, No. 4 (Oct., 1987), pp. 1118-1128.

Contra Aid Fundamentals: Exploring the Intricacies and the Issues, Richard Sobel, Political Science Quarterly Vol. 110, No. 2 (Summer, 1995), pp. 287-306.

Lies about Nicaragua, Wayne S. Smith, Foreign Policy, No. 67 (Summer, 1987), pp. 87-103.

Legal and Institutional Aspects of the Iran-Contra Affair, EDWIN TIMBERS, Presidential Studies Quarterly Vol. 20, No. 1, Leadership and Crisis Management (WINTER 1990), pp. 31-41.



Historical Background

             Grenada -

             Grenada invasion -

Historians’ Opinions - TO VIEW FROM HOME -->

Prelude to an Intervention: Grenada 1983, Gary Williams, Journal of Latin American Studies Vol. 29, No. 1 (Feb., 1997), pp. 131-169.

The Grenada Invasion in Historical Perspective: From Monroe to Reagan, Gordon Connell-Smith, Third World Quarterly Vol. 6, No. 2 (Apr., 1984), pp. 432-445.

Decisions on American Armed Intervention: Lebanon, Dominican Republic, and Grenada, H. W. Brands, Jr., Political Science Quarterly Vol. 102, No. 4 (Winter, 1987-1988), pp. 607-624.

The Reagan Administration, the 1973 War Powers Resolution, and the Invasion of Grenada, Michael Rubner, Political Science Quarterly Vol. 100, No. 4 (Winter, 1985-1986), pp. 627-647.

The Presidency and Promoted Crisis: Reagan, Grenada, and Issue Management, Denise M. Bostdorff, Presidential Studies Quarterly V. 21, #4, Presidential Power and the Two Presidencies Reaffirmed (Fall, 1991), pp. 737-750.

The Invasion of Grenada, 1983 and the Collapse of Legal Norms, Maurice Waters, Journal of Peace Research Vol. 23, No. 3 (Sep., 1986), pp. 229-246.



Historical Background

Historians’ Opinions - TO VIEW FROM HOME -->

The U. S. Congress and the CIA: Monitoring the Dark Side of Government, Loch Johnson, Legislative Studies Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 4 (Nov., 1980), pp. 477-499.

Partners in Time: The CIA and Afghanistan since 1979, Charles G. Cogan, World Policy Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2 (Summer, 1993), pp. 73-82.

'The Red Template': US Policy in Soviet-Occupied Afghanistan, Andrew Hartman,Third World Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 3 (Jun., 2002), pp. 467-489.

State, Modernisation and Rebellion: US-Soviet Politics of Domination of Afghanistan, Hafizullah Emadi, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 26, No. 4 (Jan. 26, 1991), pp. 176-179+181+183-184.

Notes on the CIA's Secret War in Afghanistan, John Prados, The Journal of American History, Vol. 89, No. 2, History and September 11: A Special Issue (Sep., 2002), pp. 466-471.




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